The discovery of DNA dates back to the early ’50s of the last century, but only a few years ago, with the completion of the Human Genome Project, we finally found the key to its complete decryption. The analysis of information contained in DNA is complex, because of the huge amount of data that is encoded in this molecule. However complex computer algorithms have allowed to extract important information from the study of the human genome. Analyzing the random DNA mutations, it is possible to accurately reconstruct the history of human evolution over the last 150,000 years and the migrations that have led man to populate the entire Earth. The contemporary Homo sapiens DNA also keeps track of the encounter with other Homo species produced by parallel evolutionary lines, and the complex relationships they have established with them.